Its interesting to know Тексты для поваров и технологов продукции общественного питания со специализированной лексикой.

Урок 1
What Is sold where
Until a few years ago the English used to shop at their local greengrocers, butcher's, baker's and so on. Now these small shops have all but capitulated as their customers pile into their cars and get everything they need at huge out-of-town-centre hangars filled with all their hearts desire.
The only shops to have survived the march of the supermarkets in any number are the corner shops, known in some quarters as Patelleries since so many of them are run by Ugandan Asian immigrant families. These corner shops supermarkets in miniature and sell anything from sweets to sweat bands, from napkins to newspapers. Many of them are also open all day and half the night. The English say that there only one golden rule. You can get anything you need in very small or very big shops and nothing in medium-sized ones.
Reading Food Labels.
Over the past 40 years, the range of foods available in packets, jars and cans has increased dramatically. Legislative bodies recognized that consumers required more information in order to make the best choices for health, which resulted in improved product labels. Food manufacturers in the European Community and North America are required by law to provide the following information on product labels: total weight or volume, a list of the ingredients and of the additives in order of weight. The name and address of the manufacturers and the country of origin. Manufacturers should also list caloric value per 100 g, suggested number of servings the packaged food provides and the date after which the product cannot be sold or should not be eaten. This date is usually stamped on the lid or the base of products. Many labels also provide a nutritional analysis of food,such as total fat, carbohydrate and protein content.
Shopping in Britain
1. You are welcome to the stores and shops, but the managers ask you to abide by the normal British rules and regulations.
2. Shopping is not necessarily the same as in your native country and your home town if you have any doubt, ask the sales staff to assist you.
3. Where baskets are provided. please, use them, do not put any item in your bag or pocket until you have paid for it.
4. Do not mishandle any of the goods on display, do not handle perishable goods(fruit, etc.) or fragile items, unless you have permission to do so.
5. No alcoholic drink may be bought anywhere by persons under the age of 18.
6. always keep the receipt that you receive
7. Do not congregate in groups in such a way that you restrict the free passage of other shoppers,or interfere in any way with the sales staff.
8. Security staff work in most of the stores and shops in England. They will be watching for any irregularity, and they have the power by law to detain you.
A Bicycle or a Cow?
A salesman at the village store was trying to persuade ¹ a farmer to buy a bicycle.“I'd rather spend my money on a cow,” the farmer said. “But think” insisted the salesman. “ What a fool you'd look riding about on a cow.”
“Not half such a fool as I'd look trying milk a bicycle.” answered the farmer.
At the Grocery Store
Excuse me, please, I'm looking for tea.
It's on the top shelf,
Aisle number three!
What else do I need? Corn and beans,
Carrots, apples and tangerines:
A gallon of milk, two pounds of steak,
A loaf of bread and a chocolate cake:
Some peanut butter and cherry jam.
Ready to check out?
Yes, I am!
1. Don't put all your eggs in one basket.
2. To buy a pig in a poke.
3. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves.
4. A penny saved is a penny earned.
5. Hope is the poor man's bread.
1. It is a vegetable that grows under the ground. It can be boiled, baked or fried. It can also be made into chips or crisps.
2. It is the meat from a bull or a cow.
3. It is a vegetable. we eat the dark red part that grows under the ground.
4. It is a shopkeeper who sells fruit and vegetables
5. It is a large shop which sells all kinds of food and things for the house.
6. It is a plant which has seeds called grains
7. It is a vegetable. It looks like a large ball of leaves. The leaves can be green, white or purple.
¹Persuade [pəʹsweıd]-уговаривать
Урок 2
Do You Need Three Meals a Day?
  How many meals you have each day depends on your activity level and personal preference. Some people feel and work best on four or five small meals.
   It is thought that eating a big breakfast, less lunch and a very small supper will aid digestion¹. In other words, you should breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dine like a pauper². This allows the digestive system to break down food during the active part of the day and give you a steady supply of nutrients. If you eat a heavy meal during the evening, it may not be digested properly and may cause indigestion.
Chewing Gum
People think that chewing gum is a modern American invention. But it isn't quite true. For thousand of years people have chewed³ gum⁴ resins⁵ made from a juice collected from trees.
Mexican Indians have chewed chicles⁶, the gum resin from the sapodilla tree⁷.
An American inventor, Thomas Adams, bought a large amount of chicle to make something to chew from it. In 1871 he made and sold the first gumballs. People liked them very much.
The chewing gum, as we know it today, was made by William Wrigley in the 1890s. He made gums into flat sticks and added special flavours. Nowadays, Wrigley's Spearmint gums and Juicy Fruit gums are the most popular chewing gums all over the world.
Chewing gum was brought to Europe by American soldiers. They were given chewing gum each day because it kept people from getting thirsty.
The soldiers gave gum to the people they met and soon it became very popular everywhere.
When Having Meals at a Restaurant
1. Choosing a meal can be a problem sometimes because dishes are called unknown foreign names. Do not guess, ask the waiter to help you.
2. Do not let the number of knives, forks and spoons confuse you. It is simple- use them in the order in which they are laid.
3. When eating, take as much as you want, but eat as much as you take.
4. Do not eat too fast or too slowly, cut as you eat.
5. There is about eating everything on your plate, to indi- cate that you have had enough place knife and fork together, not criss-cross.
6. Do not leave the spoon in your cup when drinking tea or coffee.
7. Do not empty your glass too quickly- it will be refilled.
8. Normally a meal in a restaurant takes time. Usually you tell the waiter what you want for the first two courses: he will take your order for dessert and coffee later.
9. when paying the bill, it is customary to tip waiters, however in most restaurants a service charge is nowadays added to avoid individual tipping. But if the waiter has been very helpful, some people like to give a small tip.
Hot Dogs
These sausages were first sold in the United States in the 1860s. Americans called them “dachshund⁸ sausages”, because they had the form of dachshunds- long and thick.
They were sold at baseball games. The sellers put the hot sausages on buns and shouted: "Get your hot dachshund sausages!"
One day in 1906 newspaper cartoonist went to a baseball game and a saw people with the dachshund sausages. Soon a funny cartoon appeared in a newspaper: a bun with a dachshund inside. Under the drawing the cartoonist wrote: "Get your hot dogs!'', because he didn't know the spelling of the word dachshund. After that they became very popular and people began to name the sausages in buns hot dogs".
Husband (angrily): what! No supper ready? I'm going out to a restaurant!
Wife: wait just five minutes!
Husband: will it be ready then?
Wife: No, but then I'll be ready to go with you.
While serving the soup the waiter looked out of the window and remarked: "It looks like rain, sir." The man tasted the soup and said: "It tasted like rain too."
A farmer comes to a town for the first time He stops at a hotel and asks the clerk about hours for meals.
“Breakfast is from 7 to 12 o'clock, lunch is from 12 to 3, dinner is from 5 to 7 and supper is from 7 to 9”, answered the clerk.
“ O, my goodness”, cried the farmer. “You eat here the whole day don't you? But I want to see the town. I don't want to stay at your hotel. I want to go to another one.”
what would You Like to Eat?
waiter: Hello, please have a seat.
What would you like to eat?
Jean: I think I'll have a steak
And then for dessert some cake.
waiter:Would you like it on a bun?
Medium? Rare? Perhaps well-done?
With some string beans or some peas?
Potatoes? Some salad? Some cheese?
Jean: I'd like my steak well-done
Served on a toasted bun.
I'd like some ketchup too.
Waiter: I'll fix it just right for you.
Vean: with a baked potato, please.
Lots of string beans, lots of cheese.
And a salad would be nice,
And bring me some water with ice.
1. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure
2. It makes one's mouth water3. One man's meat is another man's poison.
4. Appetite comes with eating.
5. A hungry man is an angry man
1. It is something you can from It is made of glass and does drink not have a handle.
2. It is the liquid that comes from fruit when you squeeze it.
3. It is a very cold sweet-tasting creamy food.
4. It is used to flavour food. It is found in the earth and in the sea water.
5. It is something you can drink from It is made of china or clay and has a handle.
6. It is food that people eat, usually at fixed times during the day.
7. It is food that is just ough for one person.

Digestion [dɪʹdʒestʃən]- пищеварение
Pauper [ʹpɔ:pə]-нищий
chew [tʃu:]- жевать
gum [gʌm]-каучуковый
resins [’rezɪn]-смола
chicles [’tʃikəl]-натуральный каучук
Саподила(саподиловое дерево)
Урок 3
Little compares to the pungent ¹ aroma and honey-like taste of saf- fron. And it is very expensive. Just i g retails ² at about £2(£2 million per ton), making it more expensive than silver.
Why is Saffron So Expensive?
Saffron is the dried stigmas ³ of the crocuss ⁴. The flowers are picked by hand in the early morning, left to dry in the sun, then in the evening three stigmas from each flower are removed by hand. To produce 1 kg of saffron, it takes about 140,000 crocuses, a lot of time and a huge amount of intense, back-breaking labour.
Saffron is most famously used in three classic dishes: the French soup bouillabaisse ⁵ the Spanish paella ⁶ and the Italian risotto a la Mila nese. It is also used in traditional Cornish saffron cakes and buns made with yeast.
English Dinner
English dinners are not so different from those anywhere else but there are a few things worth mentioning.
The English often warm the plates. Be careful not to burn yourself when you touch them.
The food is often served up onto the individual plates the hostess. If by you are given more food than you can hostess manage, you must tell your about it. She will take some of it away before you have touched it. This is what you can say: "Oh, it looks delicious, but I'm afraid it (really) is too much for me! I don't think I can manage all of it. I'm sorry”.
When leaving the table, you don't use the words"thank you" but you thank your hostess for food by saying, for instance: "I did enjoy that” or"That was delicious. I really enjoyed it”.
Is it a myth or is it true that the English drink tea all the time? The English very seldom drink milk with their meals as in many other coun- tries. Some Englishmen drink water or squash ⁷, others may drink beer or wine on special occasions. Some families have tea with their dinner.
If you are not given anything to drink and you find it difficult to have a meal without a drink. you can get yourse. lf a glass of water from the jar. You just say: "May I get myself a glass of water, please?"
Tea or Coffee
They say that English people can't make good coffee. There is a story about the man who was having breakfast in an English hotel.
He took a drink from his cup and then said the waiter"Waiter, is this tea or coffee?" to
The waiter said. Can't you tell the difference, sir, by the taste?
"No," the man said, "I can't."
"Well," answered the waiter, if you can't tell the difference, what does it matter which it is?"
A Mushroom
A Frenchman was travelling England. He couldn't speak English in at all. He knew only a few English words and it was difficult for him to make himself understood. One day he came to a country inn. He felt hungry and decided to have lunch there. He wanted to order some mushrooms which he liked very much. So he called the waiter and spoke to him in French. The waiter could not understand a single word.
What was the Frenchman to do?
At last he had a good idea"If I show him a picture of a mushroom, he will understand what I want," he said to himself .
So he took a piece of paper and a pencil and drew a picture of a mushroom. The waiter looked at it and ran out of the room. A few minutes later the waiter returned with an umbrella, for this was how he had understood the picture.
A Polite Question
The manager of a very fashionable restaurant was much pained when a guest tied his napkin round his neck. So he called a boy waiter to make the gentleman understand, as tactfully as he could, that such things were not done.
The boy approached the guest and asked seriously: "Shave or haircut, sir?"
You Are Drinking My Strawberry Shake
“ You can sing this dialogue on the melody of the English song"My Bonny is over the ocean”
Jack: Excuse me, I'm sorry to tell you,
But you took my drink by mistake.
Excuse me, I'm sorry to tell you,
You drinking my strawberry shake.
Mag: I'm not.
Jack: You are.
Mag: Don't get upset. Don't raise your voice.
Jack: I'm not.
Mag: You are.
Jack: Please, don't raise your voice to me.
Mag: And what makes you think it's your milk shake?
I think you must be colour-blind.
And what makes you think it's your milk shake?
I are out of your mind. think you
Jack: I'm not.
Mag: You are.
Jack: Let's let the manager say who's right.
Mag: All right.
Jacke: All right.
Mag: Let's have him settle the fight.
1. Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper.
2. Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow.
3. As slippery as an eel.
4. All sugar and honey.
5. Hunger breaks stone walls.
1. Two slices of bread with food between them.
2. It is a drink. It is made by pouring boiling water onto the dried leaves of a plant with the same name.
3. It is a small plant. It has a short thick stem with a round top. It looks like a tiny umbrella.
4. It is a sea creature that has a hard shell, two large claws and eight legs.
5. It is a food that is made by cooking fruit with a lot of sugar.
6. It is a food made from milk. It can be hard or soft. Some sorts of it have a strong flavour.
7.when it, food in your mouth. chew it and you do you put swallow it.
Урок 4
In 1860 was published the classic recipe book by Elena Molokhovetz Gift to Young Housewives". It was over 1,000 pages long and is still considered a kitchen Bible by Russia's home cooks. Mrs Molokhovetz was full of respect for Russian traditions and the dictates of the Church calendar, but French in the techniques and refinement she brought to the ordinary table.
Salting and soaking are the oldest methods of preserving products for long and cold Russian winters. Foods treated in these two ways were favourites with both peasants and royalty. Empress Catherine the Great liked best of all a Russian dish of salted cucumber with a piece of boiled beef .
Russian cuisine has borrowed many products and preparation methods from other national cuisines. Trade with Byzantium brought Russia spices, seasonings, rice and buckwheat. Bulgaria shared its peppers, eggplants and marrow squashes.
Western neighbours innuenced Russian cuisine too and now we have beef steaks and schnitzels from German-Dutch cuisine and many sauces, dishes of poultry, game, fish and vegetables from France.
The tomato was brought to Europe from Mexico in the 16th century. The Italian botanist Mattioli called it pomo d'oro or golden apple, because of the colour the tomato has during its ripening. So Italians call the fruit pomodoro(the plural is pomodori), the French, English, Spanish and German continue to use the name the Indians of Mexico gave it: tomato or tomate.
Mother:Yesterday I left two pieces of cake in the cupboad. Now there is only one piece left. Can you explain it?
Pete: well, I think, it was so dark that didn't notice the other.
Good Manners
Nick invited his new friend Tommy to dinner at his house. Tom's mother was very anxious about her little son's table manners.
"Tommy, don't eat off the knife. And if your food is too hot, don't blow on it. And don't talk with you mouth full," she told him.
When Tommy returned, he said: "I remembered what you told me, Mum, and I did only one thing wrong."
What did you do, Tommy?"
"Oh, when I wanted to cut my meat, it fell off the plate on the floor.
"Oh, my dear, what did you do then?"
"I said, that's always the way with tough meat, and picked it up from the floor"
There Are Days When Everything Goes Wrong
The bread was stale
It was three days old
The milk was sour
The coffee was cold
The butter was rancid
The steak was tough,
The service was dreadful
The waiter was rough
My bill was huge
His tip was small
I'm sorry I went to that place at all.
I. A tree is known by its fruit.
2. Every cook praises his own broth.
3. Too many cooks spoil the broth.
4. To eat the calf in the cow's belly
5. To cook a hare before catching him
1. It is the first meal of the day.
2. It is yellow fat which is made from cream. You can spread it on bread.
3. An oval object laid by female birds. has a hard shell and contains a baby bird.
4. it is a white or brown powder made by grinding grains such as wheat.
5. It is a sweet sticky liquid that is made by bees.
Урок 5
Fusion Cooking
Fusion cooking is cooking which combines one or more elements from different cooking traditions. either techniques or ingrediens. It is also called cross-cultural cooking, or cooking without barriers.Fusion ingredients usually come from Asia, Central America or South America. Food is changing. Nowadays more favour. people want food that has more favour . There are other reasons for the spreading of fusion cooking.They are the communication revolution(a chef can fax a recipe in seconds) as well as the improved quality and speed of overseas food transportation.
Company's Coming
Company's coming, what shall I serve?
An entrée, dessert and perhaps an hors d'oeuvre.
will it be perfect? How will it taste?
If nobody eats, it will all go to waste.
I always get scared when I cook for a guest.
It's almost as bad as taking a test.
Can I be sure it will all work out fine?
Will they all say that my cooking's divine?
First of all I will make up a list.
So that nothing's forgotten and nothing is missed.
I'll plan the whole menu and do things ahead.
I'll make it look easy, not something to dread.
There was an old Man of Berlin
Whose form was uncommonly thin.
Till he once by mistake
Was mixed up in a cake.
So they baked that old Man of Berlin.
There was an old Man of Columbia
Who was thirsty and called out for some beer
But they brought it quite hot
In a small copper pot
Which disgusted that Man of ColumbiaThere was an old Man of the East
Who gave all his children a feast.
But they all ate so much
And their conduct was such
That it killed that old Man of the East
1. He would eat the nut must first crack the shell.
2. Neither fish nor flesh.
3.To fall off the frying pan into the fire
4. You cannot eat your cake and have it.
5. A watched pot never boils.
I. It is meat from a pig. The meat is salted and sometimes smoked.
2.The thick part of the milk that you can whip to put on cakes.
3. It is meat from a pig.
4. It is a kind of food which is used to sweeten other food and drinks.
5. It is sliced bread made brown and crisp by heating.
6. It is a finely cut meat mixture put into a skin.
7. It is a floury mixture that can be cooked to make pastry or bread.
Урок 6
Removing Inedible Items from Your Mouth
1. Olive pits: drop delicately into your palm before putting them onto your plate.
2. Chicken bone: use your fork to return it to the plate.
3. Fish bones: remove with your fingers.
4. Bigger pieces: bigger bones or food you do not appreciate you should surreptitiously spit into your serviette(napkin), so that you can keep it out of sight.
Foods You Can Get by Hand
1. Bread: break slices of bread, rolls and muffins in half or into small pieces by hand before buttering.
2. Bacon: if there's fat on it, with a knife and fork: if it is crisp, crumble it with a fork and eat with your fingers.
3. Finger meals: follow the cue of your host: if finger meals are offered on a platter, place them on your plate before putting them into your mouth.
4. Foods meant to be eaten by hand: corn on the cob, spareribs, lobster, clams and oysters on the half shell, chicken wings and bones(in informal situations), sandwiches, certain fruits, olives, dry cakes and cookies.
Diner: waiter. I want chicken and the younger the better.
Waiter: In that case, sir, order eggs.
He Understood!
Two Americans were travelling in Spain. One morning they entered a little restaurant for lunch. They did not know Spanish, however, and the waiter did not know English. So they tried to make him understand that they wanted some milk and sandwiches.
At first they pronounced the word"milk" many times. Then they spelled it. But the waiter still could not understand.
At last one of them took a piece of paper and began to draw a cow. He was just finishing his drawing. when the waiter looked at it and ran out of the restaurant.
"You see," said the traveller who had drawn the cow. what a pencil can do for a man who has difficulties in a foreign country."
After some time the waiter was back, but he brought no milk. He put down in front of the two men two tickets for a bullfight!
1. After dinner sit/sleep a while, after supper walk a mile.
2. old friends and old wines are best.
3. To be born with a silver spoon in one's mouth.
4. Honey is sweet, but the bee stings.
5. He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet.
There was a young man of Calcutta
who spoke with a terrible stutter.
He said, "If you please,
Will you pass me the cheese
And the b-b-b-b-b-butter
There was a young lady of
Niger who smiled as she rode a tiger.
They returned from the ride
With the lady inside,
And a smile on the face of the tiger.
There was an old man of Khartoum
Who kept two black sheep in his room"They remind me," he said,
"Of two friends who are dead,"
But he never would tell us of whom.

1. It is a kind of sweet that you chew but do not swallow.
2. It is a small fruit with a thin dark red or yellow skin. It has a large stone it the middle.
3. when you do it, you put something into a liquid and leave it there.
4. It is a food made with flour and baked in an oven.
5. when people do it, they cook food in a pan with hot fat or oil.
6. when you do it, you mix a liquid inside a container with some- thing like a spoon.
Урок 7
Savouring the Flavour
French children learn how to use their sense of taste in school. Part of their curriculum involves the identifying and describing the tastes of saltiness, bitterness, sweetness and sourness, followed by exercises in which food textures are explored. Finally, children learn how to describe blends of flavours and textures in specific foods.
Refined Taste
The French believe that, like a fine painting or a piece of classical music, the artistry of a cook and the quality of a meal may be appreciated fully only when the eater's sense of taste has been educated.
How Do we Taste a Food?
As human being, we have about 10,000 taste buds in our mouths. located in papillae which are grouped according to receptivity to salty sour, sweet and bitter. Inside each bud are some fifty taste cells relaying information to neurons which report to the brain. We primarily taste sweet things at the tip of the tongue, sour substances at the sides. Salty all over the surface ( but mainly toward the front). and bitter at the back. But every taste is the result of a combination of the four primary tastes!
We can only taste a food when it begins to dissolves: it is through saliva that the taste buds are stimulated.
People's taste in food differs and change over time. Taste buds themselves only last about a week, the body replaces them. As we get older, however, they are not replaced as quickly, it takes more so intense flavour to create the same sensation in the mouth.
People's Peculiarities
A man who stuttered was asked why he did so.
"It's my p-p-peculiarity," he answered"Everybody has some p-p peculiarity."
"I don't have any," said the questioner
"Don't you stir your coffee with your right hand?"
"Yes, of course."
"That's your p-p-peculiarity. Most p-p-people use a s-s-spoon."
1. They must hunger in winter, that will not work in summer.
2. To weep over an onion.
3. Hunger finds no fault with cookery.
4. A fool and his money are soon parted
5. No sweet without some sweat.
1. It is a small curved plate to put a cup on
2. It is a part of a cooker. It is like a metal box with a door.
3. It is flesh taken from an animal that has been killed for eating.
4. It is a room that is used for cooking and washing up.
5. It is a brown sweet or drink made from cocoa.
6. It is a liquid food. It is made by boiling meat or vegetables.
7. It is an oven with gas or electric rings on top.

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