Презентация по английскому языку Заимствования в английском языке


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Министерство образования и науки КЧРКарачаевский муниципальный районЗаимствованные слова в английском языке. п.Правокубанский СОДЕРЖАНИЕ:ВведениеI. Процентный состав английского языка.II. Заимствования:1.Кельтские заимствования.2.Латинские заимствования.2.1 Первый слой латинских заимствований.2.2 Второй слой латинских заимствований.2.3 Третий слой латинских заимствований.3. Скандинавские заимствования.4.Французские заимствования.5. Заимствования из европейских языков в 17-18 вв.: 5.1 Заимствования из голландского языка.5.2 Заимствования из итальянского языка.5.3 Заимствования из испанского языка.5.4 Заимствования из немецкого языка в 20 вв.5.5Заимствования из русского языка.6. Заключение.7. Список литературы. Англоязычный мир English-speaking world The Contemporary English language belongs to the Anglo-Frisian sub-group of the West Germanic branch of the German family. Кельты были коренным населением Древней Британии Вооруженные кельты-The armed Celts Кельты были завоеваны викингами-----The Celts were conquered by the Vikings Скандинавские заимствования Scandinavian borrowings came with the Vikings Названия самых простых вещей являются кореннымиThe names of the most simple things are of the native origin. Слова скандинавского происхожденияScandinavian Borrowings There were many words in the two languages which were different, and some of them were borrowed into English, such nouns as: bull, cake, egg, kid, knife, skirt, window etc, such adjectives as: flat, ill, happy, low, odd, ugly, wrong, such verbs as : call, die, guess, get, give, scream and many others. Even some pronouns and connective words were borrowed which happens very seldom, such as: same, both, till, fro, though, and pronominal forms with «th»: they, them, their. Scandinavian influenced the development of phrasal verbs, which did not exist in Old English, at the same time some prefixed verbs came out of usage, e.g. ofniman, beniman. Phrasal verbs are now highly productive in English /take off, give in etc/. rome С 5 века Британия стала частью Римской Империи From the fifth century Britain was the part of the Roman Empire English was enriched by words of Romanic origin borrowed from Latin - alter, cross, dean, church, angel, devil, etc. Битвы с римлянамиBattles with Romans Римская культура ввела понятия, не известные коренному населению Латынь была языком религии и наукиLatin was the language of church and science Вильгельм завоеватель--William the ConqurerThe largest group of borrowings are French borrowings. Most of them came into English during the Norman Conquest. There are the following groups of French Borrowings:a) words relating to government : administer, empire, state, government; b) words relating to military affairs: army, war, banner, soldier, battle; c) words relating to jury: advocate, petition, inquest, sentence, barrister; d) words relating to fashion: luxury, coat, collar, lace, pleat, embroidery; e) words relating to jewelry: topaz, emerald, ruby, pearl ; f) words relating to food and cooking: lunch, dinner, appetite, to roast, to stew.Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through French literature, but they were not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:a) words relating to literature and music: belle-lettres, conservatorie, brochure, nuance, piruette, vaudeville; b) words relating to military affairs: corps, echelon, fuselage, manouvre; c) words relating to buildings and furniture: entresol, chateau, bureau; d) words relating to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine. Заимствования из европейских языков в 17-18вв - Borrowings from European Languages in the 17-18th centuries.Italian Borrowings – bank, bankrupt, volcano, granite, bronze, lava, manifesto, bulletin. alto, baritone, basso, tenor, falsetto, solo, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, opera, operetta, libretto, piano, violin Торговля способствовала проникновению испанских слов в английский язык-- Spanish borrowings came into English mainly through economic contacts. Слова испанского происхождения--Spanish Borrowings: There are the following semantic groups of them:a) trade terms: cargo, embargo; b) names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar; c) names of vegetables and fruit: tomato, potato, tobacco, cocoa, banana, ananas, apricot etc.  СлованемецкогопроисхожденияGerman borrowings.There are some 800 words borrowed from German into English. Some of them have classical roots, e.g. in some geological terms, such as: cobalt, bismuth, zink, quarts, gneiss, wolfram. There were also words denoting objects used in everyday life which were borrowed from German:  iceberg, lobby, and rucksack, Kindergarten etc.In the period of the Second World War the following words were borrowed: Volkssturm, Luftwaffe, SS-man, Bundeswehr, gestapo, gas chamber and many others. After  the Second World War the following words were borrowed: Berufsverbot, Volkswagen etc. Голландия всегда имела тесные контакты с Великобританией --Holland and England have constant contacts for many centuries словаголландскогопроисхождения-Holland borrowings. Holland and England have constant interrelations for many centuries and more than 2000 Holland borrowings were borrowed into English. Most of them are nautical terms and were mainly borrowed in the 14-th century, such as: freight, skipper, pump, keel, dock, reef, deck, leak and many others. Заимствования из русского языка -- Russian Borrowins Русские слова – следствие торговых отношенийRussian words came into English due to trade relations Соболь-первое русское слово в английском языке Sable – the first Russian word in English Заключение: In conclusion :English as a global languageEnglish has often been referred to as a «world language», the lingua franca of the modern era, it is rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it continues to grow. English itself is now open to borrowings, though the purist tendencies are existing too. Список литературы:1. В.П. Секирин «Заимствования в английском языке»,Санкт-Петербург: изд-во Союз, 2008.2. Н.Н. Амосова «Этимологические основы словарного состава современного английского языка»,М:изд-во- Менеджер, 2005.3. Под редакцией Н.Н. Амосовой «Лексикология английского языка», М: Дрофа, 2009.4.Г.Б.Антрушина и др. «Лекссикология английского языка»,М: Дрофа, 2011.4. В.Д. Аракин «Очерки по истории английского языка» М:изд-во Владос, 2002. Thank you for your attention!Спасибо за внимание!

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